Difference between revisions of "Upanishads (book)"

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(Major texts)
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== Major texts ==
 
== Major texts ==
"Although there are over 200 surviving Upanishads, only 14 are considered to be the most important. The names of these Upanishads are: Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Kausitaki, Mahanarayana and the Maitri."<ref>[https://www.ancient.eu/Upanishads/ Ancient History Encyclopedia website.</ref>
 
  
These are some of the principal Upanishads texts.
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These are the '''Mukhya Upanishads''', also known as Principal Upanishads, are associated with the Vedic tradition:
  
 
=== Aitareya Upanishad ===
 
=== Aitareya Upanishad ===
 +
 +
This is associated with the '''Rigveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/aitar.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/aitar.html Sri Aurobindo].
  
=== Brihadaranyaka Upanishad ===
+
See also:
 +
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aitareya_Upanishad Aitareya Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
 +
 
 +
=== Bṛhadāraṇyaka or Brihadaranyaka Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
This is associated with '''Yajurveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/brihad.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/brihad.html Sri Aurobindo].
  
=== Chandogya Upanishad ===
+
See also:
 +
* [xxxx Bṛhadāraṇyaka] in Wikipedia.
 +
 
 +
=== Chāndogya or Chandogya Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
This is associated with '''Samaveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
*  
 
*  
  
=== Isa or Isha Upanishad ===
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See also:
 +
*
 +
 
 +
=== Īśā or Isha Upanishad ===
 +
 +
This is associated with '''Yajurveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/isha.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/isha.html Sri Aurobindo].
 +
 +
See also:
 +
* [xxxx        Ishopanishad      ] in Wikipedia.
  
 
=== Katha Upanishad ===
 
=== Katha Upanishad ===
 +
 +
This is associated with '''Yajurveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/katha.html Sri Aurobindo, 1910].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/katha.html Sri Aurobindo, 1910].
 +
 +
See also:
 +
* [                ] in Wikipedia.
  
 
=== Kausitaki Upanishad ===
 
=== Kausitaki Upanishad ===
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*  
 
*  
  
=== Mandukya Upanishad ===
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=== Māṇḍūkya or Mandukya Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
This is associated with '''Atharvaveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/mandu.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/mandu.html Sri Aurobindo].
 +
 +
See also:
 +
*
  
 
=== Mundukya Upanishad ===
 
=== Mundukya Upanishad ===
 +
 +
This is associated with '''Atharvaveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/mundaka.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/mundaka.html Sri Aurobindo].
 +
 +
See also:
 +
*
  
 
=== Prasna Upanishad ===
 
=== Prasna Upanishad ===
 +
 +
This is associated with '''Atharvaveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 +
*
 +
 +
See also:
 
*  
 
*  
  
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=== Taittiriya Upanishad ===
 
=== Taittiriya Upanishad ===
 +
 +
This is associated with '''Yajurveda'''.
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
*  
+
*
 +
 
 +
== Other texts ==
 +
 
 +
"Although there are over 200 surviving Upanishads, only 14 are considered to be the most important. The names of these Upanishads are: Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Kausitaki, Mahanarayana and the Maitri."<ref>[https://www.ancient.eu/Upanishads/ Ancient History Encyclopedia website.</ref>
  
 
== Additional resources ==
 
== Additional resources ==

Revision as of 17:43, 21 May 2020

ARTICLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION
ARTICLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Upanishads refers to a collection of ancient Indian texts that provide the philosophical grounding of Hinduism, along with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutras. They were written over a period of centuries beginning in the 7th century BCE.

The Upanishads are texts found at the end of each Veda, discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge. They are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought, and have profoundly influenced diverse traditions. There are 108 Muktikā Upanishads in Hinduism, of which between 10 and 13 are variously counted by scholars as Principal Upanishads.

Blavatsky on the Upanishads

In her book The Secret Doctrine, H. P. Blavatsky wrote at length about her view of this collection of books as esoteric texts:

The UpanishadsUpa-ni-shad being a compound word meaning “the conquest of ignorance by the revelation of secret, spiritual knowledge”—require now the additional possession of a Master-key to enable the student to get at their full meaning. The reason for this I venture to state here as I learned it from a Master.
The name, “Upanishads,” is usually translated “esoteric doctrine.” These treatises form part of the Sruti or “revealed knowledge,” Revelation, in short, and are generally attached to the Brahmana portion of the Vedas, as their third division. There are over 150 Upanishads enumerated by, and known to, Orientalists, who credit the oldest with being written probably about 600 years b.c.; but of genuine texts there does not exist a fifth of the number. The Upanishads are to the Vedas what the Kabala is to the Jewish Bible. They treat of and expound the secret and mystic meaning of the Vedic texts. They speak of the origin of the Universe, the nature of Deity, and of Spirit and Soul, as also of the metaphysical connection of mind and matter. In a few words: They CONTAIN the beginning and the end of all human knowledge, but they have now ceased to REVEAL it, since the day of Buddha. If it were otherwise, the Upanishads could not be called esoteric, since they are now openly attached to the Sacred Brahmanical books, which have, in our present age, become accessible even to the Mlechchhas (out-castes) and the European Orientalists. One thing in them—and this in all the Upanishads—invariably and constantly points to their ancient origin, and proves (a) that they were written, in some of their portions, before the caste system became the tyrannical institution which it still is; and (b) that half of their contents have been eliminated, while some of them were rewritten and abridged.[1]

Major texts

These are the Mukhya Upanishads, also known as Principal Upanishads, are associated with the Vedic tradition:

Aitareya Upanishad

This is associated with the Rigveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Bṛhadāraṇyaka or Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

  • [xxxx Bṛhadāraṇyaka] in Wikipedia.

Chāndogya or Chandogya Upanishad

This is associated with Samaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Īśā or Isha Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

  • [xxxx Ishopanishad ] in Wikipedia.

Katha Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

  • [ ] in Wikipedia.

Kausitaki Upanishad

Translations by:

Kena Upanishad

Translations by:

Mahanarayana Upanishad

Translations by:

Maitri Upanishad

Translations by:

Māṇḍūkya or Mandukya Upanishad

This is associated with Atharvaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Mundukya Upanishad

This is associated with Atharvaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Prasna Upanishad

This is associated with Atharvaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Shwetasvatara Upanishad

Translations by:

Taittiriya Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

Other texts

"Although there are over 200 surviving Upanishads, only 14 are considered to be the most important. The names of these Upanishads are: Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Kausitaki, Mahanarayana and the Maitri."[2]

Additional resources

The Union Index of Theosophical Periodicals lists over 300 articles in Theosophical periodicals that are about the Upanishads or reviews of books about the Upanishads. Here is a list of the articles.

Digital versions

Artistic representations

Artist Joma Sipe has illustrated the Twelve Principal Upanishads, "as considered in a book by Doctor E. Roer, in 1906." The art works have been published by Theosophy Forward in Upanishads.

Commentaries

  • Besant, Annie. The Wisdom of the Upanishats. Available at Canadian Theosophical Association.
  • Johnston, Charles. "The Kingdom of Heaven and the Upanishads". The Open Court. December, 1905. Available at OpenSIUC.

Audio

Additional print resources

  • Q.[author unknown], "Mr. Johnston and the Upanishads", The Theosophical Quarterly 29.3 (January, 1932), 214-222.

Notes

  1. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine vol. I, (Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1993), 269-270.
  2. [https://www.ancient.eu/Upanishads/ Ancient History Encyclopedia website.