Difference between revisions of "Upanishads (book)"

From Theosophy Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Major texts)
Line 17: Line 17:
 
== Major texts ==
 
== Major texts ==
  
These are the '''Mukhya Upanishads''', also known as Principal Upanishads, are associated with the Vedic tradition:
+
These are the '''Mukhya Upanishads''', also known as Principal Upanishads, are associated with the Vedic tradition. They are accepted  by all Hindus ad the most important scriptures of [[Hinduism]].
  
 
=== Aitareya Upanishad ===
 
=== Aitareya Upanishad ===
Line 37: Line 37:
  
 
See also:
 
See also:
* [xxxx Bṛhadāraṇyaka] in Wikipedia.
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brihadaranyaka_Upanishad Brihadaranyaka Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
  
 
=== Chāndogya or Chandogya Upanishad ===
 
=== Chāndogya or Chandogya Upanishad ===
Line 47: Line 47:
  
 
See also:
 
See also:
*  
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandogya_Upanishad Chandogya Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
  
 
=== Īśā or Isha Upanishad ===
 
=== Īśā or Isha Upanishad ===
Line 57: Line 57:
  
 
See also:
 
See also:
* [xxxx        Ishopanishad      ] in Wikipedia.
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isha_Upanishad Isha Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
  
=== Katha Upanishad ===
+
=== Kaṭha or Katha Upanishad ===
  
 
This is associated with '''Yajurveda'''.
 
This is associated with '''Yajurveda'''.
Line 67: Line 67:
  
 
See also:
 
See also:
* [               ] in Wikipedia.
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katha_Upanishad Katha Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
  
=== Kausitaki Upanishad ===
+
=== Kena Upanishad ===
  
Translations by:
+
This is associated with '''Samaveda'''.
*
 
 
 
=== Kena Upanishad ===
 
  
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/kena.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/kena.html Sri Aurobindo].
  
=== Mahanarayana Upanishad ===
+
See also:
 
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kena_Upanishad Kena Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
Translations by:
 
*  
 
 
 
=== Maitri Upanishad ===
 
 
 
Translations by:
 
*
 
  
 
=== Māṇḍūkya or Mandukya Upanishad ===
 
=== Māṇḍūkya or Mandukya Upanishad ===
Line 107: Line 97:
  
 
See also:
 
See also:
*
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mundaka_Upanishad Mundaka Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
  
=== Prasna Upanishad ===
+
=== Praṣna or Prasna Upanishad ===
  
 
This is associated with '''Atharvaveda'''.
 
This is associated with '''Atharvaveda'''.
Line 117: Line 107:
  
 
See also:
 
See also:
*
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prashna_Upanishad Prasna Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
 
 
=== Shwetasvatara Upanishad ===
 
 
 
Translations by:
 
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/shwe.html Sri Aurobindo].
 
  
 
=== Taittiriya Upanishad ===
 
=== Taittiriya Upanishad ===
Line 130: Line 115:
 
Translations by:
 
Translations by:
 
*
 
*
 +
 +
See also:
 +
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taittiriya_Upanishad Taittiriya Upanishad] in Wikipedia.
  
 
== Other texts ==
 
== Other texts ==
  
"Although there are over 200 surviving Upanishads, only 14 are considered to be the most important. The names of these Upanishads are: Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Kausitaki, Mahanarayana and the Maitri."<ref>[https://www.ancient.eu/Upanishads/ Ancient History Encyclopedia website.</ref>
+
These are some of the other significant texts from the 200+ surviving Upanishads.
 +
 
 +
=== Kausitaki Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
Translations by:
 +
*
 +
 
 +
=== Mahanarayana Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
Translations by:
 +
*
 +
 
 +
=== Maitri Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
Translations by:
 +
*
 +
 
 +
=== Shwetasvatara Upanishad ===
 +
 
 +
Translations by:
 +
* [http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/indian/upanishads/shwe.html Sri Aurobindo].
  
 
== Additional resources ==
 
== Additional resources ==

Revision as of 18:00, 21 May 2020

ARTICLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION
ARTICLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Upanishads refers to a collection of ancient Indian texts that provide the philosophical grounding of Hinduism, along with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutras. They were written over a period of centuries beginning in the 7th century BCE.

The Upanishads are texts found at the end of each Veda, discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge. They are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought, and have profoundly influenced diverse traditions. There are 108 Muktikā Upanishads in Hinduism, of which between 10 and 13 are variously counted by scholars as Principal Upanishads.

Blavatsky on the Upanishads

In her book The Secret Doctrine, H. P. Blavatsky wrote at length about her view of this collection of books as esoteric texts:

The UpanishadsUpa-ni-shad being a compound word meaning “the conquest of ignorance by the revelation of secret, spiritual knowledge”—require now the additional possession of a Master-key to enable the student to get at their full meaning. The reason for this I venture to state here as I learned it from a Master.
The name, “Upanishads,” is usually translated “esoteric doctrine.” These treatises form part of the Sruti or “revealed knowledge,” Revelation, in short, and are generally attached to the Brahmana portion of the Vedas, as their third division. There are over 150 Upanishads enumerated by, and known to, Orientalists, who credit the oldest with being written probably about 600 years b.c.; but of genuine texts there does not exist a fifth of the number. The Upanishads are to the Vedas what the Kabala is to the Jewish Bible. They treat of and expound the secret and mystic meaning of the Vedic texts. They speak of the origin of the Universe, the nature of Deity, and of Spirit and Soul, as also of the metaphysical connection of mind and matter. In a few words: They CONTAIN the beginning and the end of all human knowledge, but they have now ceased to REVEAL it, since the day of Buddha. If it were otherwise, the Upanishads could not be called esoteric, since they are now openly attached to the Sacred Brahmanical books, which have, in our present age, become accessible even to the Mlechchhas (out-castes) and the European Orientalists. One thing in them—and this in all the Upanishads—invariably and constantly points to their ancient origin, and proves (a) that they were written, in some of their portions, before the caste system became the tyrannical institution which it still is; and (b) that half of their contents have been eliminated, while some of them were rewritten and abridged.[1]

Major texts

These are the Mukhya Upanishads, also known as Principal Upanishads, are associated with the Vedic tradition. They are accepted by all Hindus ad the most important scriptures of Hinduism.

Aitareya Upanishad

This is associated with the Rigveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Bṛhadāraṇyaka or Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Chāndogya or Chandogya Upanishad

This is associated with Samaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Īśā or Isha Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Kaṭha or Katha Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Kena Upanishad

This is associated with Samaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Māṇḍūkya or Mandukya Upanishad

This is associated with Atharvaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Mundukya Upanishad

This is associated with Atharvaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Praṣna or Prasna Upanishad

This is associated with Atharvaveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Taittiriya Upanishad

This is associated with Yajurveda.

Translations by:

See also:

Other texts

These are some of the other significant texts from the 200+ surviving Upanishads.

Kausitaki Upanishad

Translations by:

Mahanarayana Upanishad

Translations by:

Maitri Upanishad

Translations by:

Shwetasvatara Upanishad

Translations by:

Additional resources

The Union Index of Theosophical Periodicals lists over 300 articles in Theosophical periodicals that are about the Upanishads or reviews of books about the Upanishads. Here is a list of the articles.

Digital versions

Artistic representations

Artist Joma Sipe has illustrated the Twelve Principal Upanishads, "as considered in a book by Doctor E. Roer, in 1906." The art works have been published by Theosophy Forward in Upanishads.

Commentaries

  • Besant, Annie. The Wisdom of the Upanishats. Available at Canadian Theosophical Association.
  • Johnston, Charles. "The Kingdom of Heaven and the Upanishads". The Open Court. December, 1905. Available at OpenSIUC.

Audio

Additional print resources

  • Q.[author unknown], "Mr. Johnston and the Upanishads", The Theosophical Quarterly 29.3 (January, 1932), 214-222.

Notes

  1. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine vol. I, (Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1993), 269-270.