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Samkhya (Sanskrit: सांख्य, sāṃkhya), is one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Indian philosophy. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India, and sage Kapila is traditionally said to be its founder.

The Samkhya philosophy offers a dualist view of the universe, which consists of two separate realities, namely, consciousness (puruṣa) and matter (prakṛti). It also denies the existence of a separate God (Īśvara) distinct from the purusha.