Dane Rudhyar

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Dane Rudhyar

Dane Rudhyar was a French-American composer, writer, artist, and astrologer.

"Astrology is the help which the Sky gives us in the performance of our dharma."

Personal life

Dane Rudhyar was born in Paris on March 23, 1895 under the name Daniel Chennevière. The maiden name of his mother was Bajaud, but little else is known of his early childhood.

At age twelve, a severe illness and surgery disabled him and he turned to music and intellectual development to compensate for his lack of physical agility. He studied at the Sorbonne, University of Paris (graduating at age 16) and at the Paris Conservatoire. His early ventures into philosophy and association with the artistic community in Paris led to his conviction that all existence is cyclical in character.

His music led him to New York City in 1916, where he composed some of the first polytonal music performed in the United States. He also met Sasaki Roshi, one of the early Japanese Zen teachers in America, who led him in the study of Oriental philosophy and occultism. His interest was further stimulated by his association with Theosophy, which began when he was asked to compose music for a production at the society's headquarters in Los Angeles in 1920. [1]

He stayed on in California. In June 9, 1930 he married Malya Contento, a well-educated Italian immigrant who worked as secretary to independent Theosophist Will Levington Comfort. Comfort, a writer whose novels were produced in films, was acquainted with screenwriter Marc Edmund Jones, and introduced Rudhyar to him. Jones became his mentor in the study of astrology.

Rudhyar married five times. After his 1945 divorce from Malya, he wed Eya Fechin (m. 1945-1954); Gail Tana Whithall (m. 1964-1976), whom he assisted with immigration; Tana Tyler (dates unknown); and Leyla Raël (m. 1977-1985).[2][3] Leyla wrote extensively about her husband and about astrology.

Mr. Rudhyar died in San Francisco on September 13, 1985.

Theosophical Society involvement

Rudhyar was involved in several societies in the Theosophical Movement. He was admitted to membership in the American Theosophical Society at Krotona in Old Hollywood, California on January 31, 1920, with A. F. Knudsen and A. P. Warrington as sponsors.[4] It was around this time that he first became interested in astrology. He became friends with Alice Evans Bailey, and B. P. Wadia, editor of The Theosophist and assistant to international Theosophical Society president Annie Besant. Wadia urged him to read the Theosophical literature.[5] During the 1920s, Rudhyar was a central figure in the Halcyon Theosophical community in Southern California.

He was a frequent lecturer in Theosophical Society in America lodges during the 1950s through 1970s in Hollywood, San Francisco, Boston, Washington, and elsewhere. The lecture topics were ranged from astrology to current affairs to religion:

"Does the Wise Man 'Rule His Stars'?"
"The Challenge of Atomic Power to Modern Individuals"
"From Buddha to Christ, Liberation and Incarnation"
"The Meaning of Seven 'Planets' in Virgo"
"New Psychological Trends and Their Application to Astrology"
"Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto; Three Phases on the Path"
"The Value of Zen to the New Generation"
"The Challenge of the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century"
"The Gift of the Spirit"

Theosophical publishing houses published many of his books, such as The Rebirth of Indian Music in 1928 by the Theosophical Publishing House in Adyar, India. The Halcyon Press of the Temple of the People printed the Seed Ideas series for the publishing house Hamsa Publications. Alice Bailey, whom Rudhyar met at the Theosophical colony in Hollywood, offered to publish his works through her Lucis Trust in New York. Theosophical periodicals reviewed and promoted his books.

Music and compositions

Soon after his arrival in the United States, Rudhyar became known as a ultra-modern composer whose ideas about dissonant harmony influenced such composers as Ruth Crawford Seeger, Henry Cowell, and Carl Ruggles.[6] Most of his works were for solo piano or small ensembles. They have frequently been performed in concerts that also featured other 20th-century composers such as Aaron Copeland and Charles Ives.

Rudhyar also wrote and spoke extensively about music, including his own compositions:

Now I am not coming here to interpret my music, to tell you about what it means either symbolically or technically. I am not interested in that because I feel that music is something that must be experienced, that must be lived. It is not even an esthetical product because my approach is not esthetical as much as it is what you might call magical. To me, music is a power of transformation. It has the power to change the vibration of a person — as the Old World knew very well in India, in China, in even the Greece of Plato and Pythagoras — and it is to that approach to music that my life as a musician has been dedicated.

You might even say that music is a psychedelic factor, or at least that it can be so. It can be so because it can change the vibrations of a person, of his aura or his nervous system or whatever is susceptible of changing, of being transformed. It can expand consciousness in different ways...

One may in special cases affect people by single tones, but generally speaking in music what is important is the relationship that is established between vibrations and tones. Music is based on relationship. A chord is a relationship between a number of simultaneous tones. A melody is an evolving relationship between successive sounds.... there is a great difference between a music of notes and a music of tones.[7]

He described Western music as using notes – abstract entities related to each other in patterns. Eastern music, however, is based on tones, each of which is "the body of a god" related to natural cycles and energies.

In a certain sense, there are no false notes; anything may happen between the tones because they are living entities, and they can relate to one another by subtle glissandos or undulations. It is the quality of the livingness of those tones which counts, whereas in Europe, if you do not strike exactly that note you make a wrong note.[8]

By introducing Oriental scales, composers such as Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Scriabin, and, in turn, Rudhyar, began to "decondition" their listeners from Western modes of musical expression. Rudhyar based many of his compositions on series of fifths. Western audiences have found his music to be dissonant, clashing, and eerie. It seems to wander along unknown paths, making unexpected turns, but it always takes listeners into a new consciousness.

Book cover
Astrology book cover

Art

At a point when Rudhyar felt stymied in his musical activities, he took up painting.

If I had been able to pursue my musical activities and if performances of my compositions had been possible, I most likely would not have started to paint. But I soon recognized that behind this new creative activity was a twofold purpose of destiny, though at first I was not aware of it. The first purpose was that I had to experience artistic creativity in two basically different ways, each of which had definite psychological connotations and values in the plenary development of my consciousness through experiences polarized at two different levels of self-revelation: music, which operated for me at the level of time-sequence, that is, in terms of a subjective psychic dimension; and painting, an expression of forms and symbols objectively realized in space. [9].

Rudhyar intended his art to be evocative, but not representational. Painting, unlike music, allowed him "to comtemplate, quietly and at length, a definite entity – an object, a painting – which had emerged out of my psychic depths..." He could use this medium with its symbolic language of color and form to search for truths that had not previously reached his consciousness. Knowing that Wassily Kandinsky used the term "concrete art" for paintings showing the appearance of concreteness, Rudhyar came up with a related term for his own art:

I soon became aware that the proper term to characterize my paintings was transcrete art, because they were not objects having meaning in themselves as much as forms translucent to the light of meaning. The word "transcrete" is made of the Latin roots trans (through) and crescere (to grow). Meaning grows out of the transcrete form as a plant grows out of a seed. The term, diaphanous, could also be used, because the forms in my paintings are (or at least purport to be) revelations of a transcendent quality or archetype of being.[10].

When Rudhyar first began exploring art, he had a significant role in forming the Transcendental Painting Group in New Mexico:

While living in Santa Fe, New Mexico during the mid-1930s Rudhyar formed friendships with Raymond Jonson and other abstract artists exploring the spiritual in art.

On the evening of 7 June 1938, Raymond and Vera Jonson, Lawren and Bess Harris, Emil and Mayiorn Bisttrim, Horace and Florence Pierce, Stuart Walker, Cady Wells, Alfred Morang, Dane Rudhyar and others met to discuss their common interest in abstract and non-objective art. On 10 June 1938, the Transcendental Painting Group was officially formed. Rudhyar was instrumental in formulating the group's theoretic foundations, and, with Raymond Jonson, wrote their manifesto. Later, Rudhyar drew Agnes Pelton into the group. Rudhyar himself began painting, soon creating notable works.[11]

Exhibitions of his work took place in October 1947 at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, and later at the University of California at Long Beach (1976) and at the University of Minnesota (1977). The latter two were "Rudhyar festivals" where lectures and musical performances were scheduled in conjunction with the exhibitions.

Astrology

Rather than a focus on event-centered, predictive astrology, Rudhyar preferred "a person-centered type of astrology which essentially deals with the psyche of human beings, with describing character traits, strengths and weaknesses in the nature of a particular person."[12] His 1936 book on the subject, The Astrology of Personality, is considered to be a fundamental work by modern astrologers. In this humanistic astrology, the birth-chart represents the blueprint of the personality from birth to death. It deals with potential and meaning and inner events.

The humanistic astrologer understands a person's life as a developmental process. He or she tries to see how events can be given meaning as phases of this process, actualizing step by step what was potential at birth. Such an approach to astrology deals with a person's life and how it operates as a whole, with events as turning points in life. It deals essentially with dharma, with understanding what we are born for and the steps by means of which we are fulfilling our dharma...

Astrologers operating in such a way... represent the kind of psychologist who has a sense of the sacredness of human life and sees it as a ritual which individual persons perform – and are meant to perform – consciously, and from which they are able to extract a profound meaning.[13]

He believed that astrology could be used as a tool for spiritual growth and self-transformation, referring to this possibility as transpersonal astrology. He was not ready to disparage the value to some people of predictive astrology or scientific approaches to understanding the influence of the heavenly bodies, but considered his to be another valid approach. He did not believe that most of humanity was ready for the occult approach to astrology of H. P. Blavatsky in The Secret Doctrine:

We have to realize that such an [occult] approach does not deal with human beings or nature in physical form, but rather refers to an astral world – a world of forces of which astrologers today know nothing. Times may come when occult knowledge of cosmic forces affecting the realm of the akasa will be available to a number of people, but thinking along such lines as a justification for any of the approaches which are known today in western astrology does not seem to me valuable.[14]

Honors

Rudyar's art and philosophy have frequently been the subjects of exhibitions, concerts, and symposia in the United States.

According to The American Theosophist in 1980,

Dane Rudhyar, who has contributed generously to The American Theosophist through the years, was recently awarded an honorary degree of Doctor in Humane Letters from John F. Kennedy University in Orinda, California and an honorary degree of Doctor in Transpersonal Philosophy by the California Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Menlo Park.[15]

In 1983 the Rudhyar Institute for Transpersonal Activity (RITA) was established as a nonprofit corporation in 1981 to preserve and disseminate the work and essential message of Dane Rudhyar. In 1983 RITA held a weekend conference attended by over 100 people.

Dane Rudhyar painting "Avatar", 1938.

Writings

Dane Rudhyar published more than forty books and over 1500 articles, mostly concerning astrology and spirituality. Claude Bragdon wrote, "Rudhyar is a man of profound and penetrating vision, whose writings cast an illumination upon life."[16]

Periodicals

Rudhyar wrote at least 1500 articles for various periodicals such as American Astrologer. He published HAMSA in Brookline, Massachusetts from 1931-1934. It was subtitled: "An Organ of Wholeness Dedicated to the Upholding of the Ideal of Harmonic Cooperation and Synthesis and to the Establishment of a Living Civilization, Animated by the Conscious Realization in Every Individual of the Living God."

The Union Index of Theosophical Periodicals lists 83 articles by or about Dane Rudhyar in nine different Theosophical periodicals.

Bibliographies

Poetry

From 1917 to 1960, Rudhyar wrote seven volumes of poetry, but not all were published.

  • Rhapsodies. Ottawa: Imprimerie Beauregard, 1919. First book of poetry.
  • Toward Man. Carmel: The Seven Arts, 1928. Second book of poetry.
  • White Thunder. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Hazel Dreis Editions, 1938. Third volume of poetry. The frontispiece was one of Rudhyar’s earliest drawings entitled "Storm Gods."
  • Of Vibrancy and Peace. The Netherlands: Servire-Wassenaar, 1967.

Novels

  • Rania: an Epic Narrative. Unity Press, 1973. Available with synopsis at Khaldea.com. "Written in 1929, this half-novel, half-poem portrays the life of an unusual woman in Hollywood in the days of silent films and life in the artist colony of Carmel. Rania was read in 16 episodes over KPFA radio in Berkeley in the early 70s.[17]
  • Return from No-Return. Palo Alto: The Seed Center, 1973.

Books on music and art

  • Claude Debussy et son oeuvre. Paris: Durand, 1913. 45 pages. Published under the name Daniel Chenneviere.
  • The Rebirth of Hindu Music. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1928. One of the earliest works on Indian music.
  • Liberation through Sound. 1931. A correspondence course.
  • Transcendental Painting Group. Sante Fe, New Mexico: Transcendental Painting Group, 1938. Brochure. Written with Alfred Morang.
  • White on the Wind. Los Angeles: Press of the Pegacycle Lady, 1971. An art book, 50 signed copies.

"Seed-Ideas" series

The "Seed-Ideas" were "a Series of Seven Essays on the Philosophy of Art."[18] They were published by Hamsa Publications, and printed at the Halcyon Press, and also in collected editions.

  • Seed-Ideas No. 1. – Dissonant Harmony, A New Principle of Musical and Social Organization. 1928. 22 pages.
  • Seed-Ideas No. 2. – The New Sense of Space, A Reorientation of the Creative Faculty in Man. 1929. 30 pages.
  • Seed-Ideas No. 3. – The Cycle of Culture and Sacrifice.1929.
  • Seed-Ideas No. 4. – Art of Gestures and Art of Patterns. 1929.
  • Seed-Ideas No. 5. – Art as Release of Power. 1929.
  • Seed-Ideas No. 6. – The Synthetic Drama as a Seed of Civilization. 1929.
  • Seed-Ideas No. 7. – The New Individual and the Work of Civilization. Ca. 1929.

A second series was issued in 1930:

  • Seed-Ideas No. 2-3. – The Will to Destiny. 1930. 40 pages.

Another series called Seed for Greater Living ran from 1955-1962 and printed in Altadena, California. It was a monthly series of booklets published 1955-1962:

  • Seed for Greater Living. Hollywood: New Age Publishing Co., 1956. 21 pages.
  • The Great Mutation. 1958. 32 pages.
  • Where Do We Stand in the Arts? 1959. 32 pages.
  • Tools for Rebirth. 1960.
  • Toward a Life of Plenitude. 1960.

Books on astrology, psychology, and occult philosophy

The Astrology of Personality is considered to be a classic, fundamental work by modern astrologers. These are most of the other books and pamphlets that Rudhyar wrote:

  • Paths To The Fire. 1930, 1932. Reprinted: Detroit: Hermes Press, 1978. Occult concepts relating to the cyclic evolution of mankind.
  • The Luciferian Call: Shadows or Creators. A Message to the Theosophical World. [Hollywood?, ca. 1932]. 29 pages.
  • The Astrology of Personality: A Re-formulation of Astrological Concepts and Ideals, in Terms of Contemporary Psychology and Philosophy. New York: Lucis, 1936. 537 pages. Rudhyar’s articles in the American Astrologer were compiled into book form at the request of his old friend Alice Bailey and published by her Lucis Press. An early edition put out by McKay. Second edition: The Hague: Servire, 1963. 537 pages. A book club edition in 1970 by Doubleday. Reissued: Santa Fe: Aurora Press, 1991. Translated into Dutch.
  • New Mansions for New Men. New York: Lucis, 1938. Portions appeared in American Astrology between 1935 and 1937. A spiritual interpretation of astrology in the light of a universal symbolism. The section titled Meditations at the Gates of Light is a mystical epic poem to the zodiac. Second edition Philadelphia: David McKay, 1946. Third edition Wassenaar: Servire, 1971, reprinted Hunter House, 1978.
  • Gifts of the Spirit. Los Angeles: New Age Publishing, 1956. 143 pages. Some material was from American Astrology, 1945-1946.
  • The Pulse of Life: New Dynamics in Astrology. Philadelphia: David McKay, 1942. 123 pages. This book presents the signs of the zodiac within the context of modern physics, philosophy and psychology. Reprints Berkeley: Shambala, 1970, 1972.
  • The Faith that Gives meaning to Victory. Hollywood: Foundation for Human Integration. 1942.
  • Seeds of Plenitude. Santa Fe: The Rydal Press, 1943. Excerpts from Rudhyar writings.
  • The Moon: The Cycles of Fortunes of Life. Philadelphia: David McKay, 1946. 111 pages. reprinted Shambala, 1971.
  • Modern Man's Conflicts: The Creative Challenge of a Global Society. New York: Philosophical Library, 1948. 228 pages.
  • Fire out of the Stone: A Reinterpretation of the Basic Images of the Christian Tradition. The Hague: Servire, 1963. 207 pages. Published in French as Le Roc Enflammée, 1960.
  • An Astrological Study of Psychological Complexes and Emotional Problems. San Jacinto, 1966. Several other editions. Translated into French.
  • The Rhythm of Human Fulfillment: a Cyclo-Cosmic Approach to the Basic Problems of Our Time. San Jacinto: Seed Ideas Publications, 1966. 71 pages. Palo Alto: The Seed Center, 1973, 1975.
  • The Lunation Cycle. The Hague: Servire, 1967. An expansion of The Moon.
  • The Practice of Astrology. The Hague: Servire, 1968.
  • Birth Patterns for a New Humanity. The Hague: Servire, 1969.
  • Astrology for New Minds. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1969. Subtitled "A Non-dualistic Harmonic Approach to Astrological Charts and to the Relation between Man and the Universe." Humanistic Astrology Series No. 1.
  • The Planetarization of Consciousness. The Hague: Servire, 1970.
  • The Astrology of Self-actualization and the New Morality. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1970. 47 pages. Humanistic Astrology Series No. 2.
  • Form in Astrological Space and Time. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1970. 47 pages. Humanistic Astrology Series No. 3.
  • First Steps in the Study of Birth-Charts. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1970. 59 pages. Humanistic Astrology Series No. 4.
  • An Attempt at Formulating Minimal Requirements for the Practice of Astrology. Portland: Portland Astrology Center, 1970s.
  • Directives for New Life. Ecology Center Press, 1971. 73 pages.
  • The Planetary and Lunar Nodes. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1971. 56 pages. Humanistic Astrology Series No. 5.
  • Interpreting a Birth-Chart as a Whole. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1971. 64 pages. Humanistic Astrology Series No. 6.
  • My Stand on Astrology. Palo Alto: The Seed Center, 1972. 31 pages.
  • Astrological Timing: the Transition to the New Age. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. 246 pages. This is a revision of Birth Patterns for a New Humanity.
  • The Astrological Houses: The Spectrum of Individual Experience. New York: Doubleday, 1972. 213 pages. Translated into French.
  • Astrological Themes for Meditation. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1972. 104 pages.
  • Person Centered Astrology. Lakemont, Georgia: CSA Press, 1972. 375 pages. A compilation of the six Humanistic Astrology Series printed by CSA in 1969-1970. Reprinted 1976, 1983.

Additional resources

Biographies and catalogues

  • Hay, Robert C. Dane Rudhyar and the Transcendental Painting Group of New Mexico 1938-1941: a Thesis Submitted to Michigan State University. Michigan: University Microfilms International, [1981]. 346 pages, B/W illustrations. Based on interviews with DR, Raymond Jonson, and Florence Pierce, William Lumpkins, and others associated with the TPG.
  • Here, James. Dane Rudhyar 1895- A Brief Factual Biography with a Listing of Works [N.p.]: (James Shere), (1972).
  • Human Dimensions. Edited by John White. Buffalo: Human Dimensions Institute Quarterly, 1975. Special issue, vol. 3, no. 3, devoted entirely to Rudhyar’s life and work. Includes published and unpublished articles, photographs, and color reproductions of his paintings.
  • Levin, Gail and Marianne Lorenz. Theme and Improvisation: Kandinsky and the American Avant-Garde 1912-1950. An Exhibition Organized by the Dayton Art Institute. Dayton: Dayton Art Institute, 1992. The events surrounding the founding of the Transcendental Painting Group are related.
  • Piper, Raymond & Lila. Cosmic Art. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1975. 152 pages. Illustrated. Reproduces Avatar, 1938, an early drawing of Rudhyar. Also includes paintings by members of the Transcendentalist Painting Group in Santa Fe.
  • Ruperti, Alexander. The Journal of the Rudhyar Institute for Transpersonal Activity 1.1 San Francisco: RITA, Fall/ Winter, 1986. A study of DR by Alexander Ruperti.
  • Seminar. Dane Rudhyar, un Humaniste du 20e Siecle. Nouvelle Acropole, 1985. 75 pages. Illustrated. Transcript of a seminar, including nine papers by A. Ruperti, G. Sabian, M. Cavaignac, L. Winckler, and F.I. Fouchou Lapeyrade. Includes a short biography and bibliography.
  • Seminar. Un Nouvel Homme pour un Nouvel Age: Centenaire Dane Rudhyar, Actes du Congrès des 25 et 26 Mars 1995. Suresnes, France: R.A.H. Editions, (1995). 203 pages, charts & diagrams in the text. Published by the Association pour la Recherche des Rythmes Cosmiques Réseau d’Astrologie Humaniste.
  • Symposium. Rudhyar. Catalogue of an Art & Humanities Symposium, California State University, Long Beach. March 24-26, 1976.

Articles

Audio/video lectures and poems

  • Dane Rudhyar Audio Archives at BeyondSunSigns.com. Recordings by and about Dane Rudhyar, including the presentation of the 1983 RITA Conference.
  • Dane Rudhyar 4.4.14. Cosmic History Chronicles Vol. 4, Book of the Initiation by José Argüelles and Stephanie South. Biographical account of Dane Rudhyar.
  • Astrology and the Transpersonal Life. A talk by Dane Rudhyar at the University of California Berkeley, June 22, 1975. Ray Couture YouTube channel.

Musical compositions performed

  • Rudhyar Archival Project. Recordings of at least 17 Rudhyar musical compositions.
  • Third Pentagram, 1926. Five movements: Gates, The Gift of Blood, Pentecost, Stars, and Sunburst. Performed by Steffen Schleiermacher, piano. TheWelleszCompany YouTube channel. Posted December 7, 2011.
  • Granites, 1929. Performed by Steffen Schleiermacher, piano. Steffen Schleiermacher - Topic YouTube channel. Posted April 30, 2015.
  • Music of Dane Rudhyar. Sixteen movements. Kronos Quartet: Hank Dutt, John Sherba, Joan Jeanrenaud, and David Harrington. Kronos Quartet YouTube channel. Posted Feb 10, 2015.
  • Top Tracks - Dane Rudhyar. Tango d'Antan and other compositions. The Orchard Enterprises YouTube Channel. Posted November 7, 2014.
  • Three Melodies, 1918/1955. A 1955 composition based on an earlier 1918 sketch. Performers: Elizabeth Coronata, flute; Gay Wuthman, cello; and Karen Jacobs, piano. Recorded on April 22, 1977 at the first concert of that year's Palo Alto Music Festival. Matt Marble YouTube channel. Posted on April 19, 2013.
  • Sinfonietta, 1925. RIAS Symphony Orchestra conducted by Jonel Perlea. Wellesz Theatre YouTube channel.

Websites

Books

  • Deniz Ertan. Dane Rudhyar: His Music, Thought and Art Rochester NY: University of Rochester Press, 2009.

Articles

  • Hillenbrand, "Towards an Astorlogy of MEaning and Purpose: The Legacy of Dane Rudhyar (1895-1985)" The FAA Journal 29.1 (March, 1999).

Notes

  1. Dane Rudhyar at American Composers Alliance website.
  2. "Dane Rudhyar" in FindaGrave website.
  3. Gail Tana Rudhyar in California, U.S., Federal Naturalization Records, 1843-1999.
  4. Membership Ledger Cards. Microfilm reel #6. Theosophical Society in America Archives.
  5. Sanaa Tanha, "A Critical Biography of Dane Rudhyar" SPICA - Postgraduate Journal for Cosmology in Culture 2.2 (Autumn, 2014), 21.
  6. American Composers Alliance, "Dane Rudhyar" at Composers.com.
  7. Dane Rudhyar, "The Transforming Power of Tone". Lecture presented at Live Oak Park Theatre, Berkeley, California in April 1972.
  8. Dane Rudhyar, "The Transforming Power of Tone". Lecture presented at Live Oak Park Theatre, Berkeley, California in April 1972.
  9. Dane Rudhyar, "Concerning My Painting" at the Rudhyar Archival Project, Khaldea website. Accessed 12 June 2021.
  10. Dane Rudhyar, "Concerning My Painting".
  11. "Works of Art" at the Rudhyar Archival Project, Khaldea website. Accessed 12 June 2021.
  12. Dane Rudhyar, " "Astrology, Sacred and Profane" The American Theosophist 66.11 (November, 1978), 290.
  13. Ibid, 291.
  14. Ibid, 292.
  15. "Dane Rudhyar Receives Honors", The American Theosophist 68.8 (Aug/Sept 1980), 263.
  16. A. A. "Book Reviews" The American Theosophist 27.1 (January, 1939), 25.
  17. Dane Rudyar: A Bibliographical Checklist at DailyRareBooks.com.
  18. Advertisement for collected edition.